How Games24x7 reworked their retraining MLOps pipelines with Amazon SageMaker

This can be a visitor weblog put up co-written with Hussain Jagirdar from Games24x7.

Games24x7 is certainly one of India’s most respected multi-game platforms and entertains over 100 million avid gamers throughout varied talent video games. With “Science of Gaming” as their core philosophy, they’ve enabled a imaginative and prescient of end-to-end informatics round recreation dynamics, recreation platforms, and gamers by consolidating orthogonal analysis instructions of recreation AI, recreation information science, and recreation consumer analysis. The AI and information science staff dive right into a plethora of multi-dimensional information and run quite a lot of use instances like participant journey optimization, recreation motion detection, hyper-personalization, buyer 360, and extra on AWS.

Games24x7 employs an automatic, data-driven, AI powered framework for the evaluation of every participant’s conduct by means of interactions on the platform and flags customers with anomalous conduct. They’ve constructed a deep-learning mannequin ScarceGAN, which focuses on identification of extraordinarily uncommon or scarce samples from multi-dimensional longitudinal telemetry information with small and weak labels. This work has been printed in CIKM’21 and is open source for uncommon class identification for any longitudinal telemetry information. The necessity for productionization and adoption of the mannequin was paramount to create a spine behind enabling accountable recreation play of their platform, the place the flagged customers might be taken by means of a distinct journey of moderation and management.

On this put up, we share how Games24x7 improved their coaching pipelines for his or her accountable gaming platform utilizing Amazon SageMaker.

Buyer challenges

The DS/AI staff at Games24x7 used a number of companies supplied by AWS, together with SageMaker notebooks, AWS Step Functions, AWS Lambda, and Amazon EMR, for constructing pipelines for varied use instances. To deal with the drift in information distribution, and subsequently to retrain their ScarceGAN mannequin, they found that the present system wanted a greater MLOps resolution.

Within the earlier pipeline by means of Step Capabilities, a single monolith codebase ran information preprocessing, retraining, and analysis. This grew to become a bottleneck in troubleshooting, including, or eradicating a step, and even in making some small adjustments within the total infrastructure. This step-function instantiated a cluster of cases to extract and course of information from S3 and the additional steps of pre-processing, coaching, analysis would run on a single massive EC2 occasion. In eventualities the place the pipeline failed at any step the entire workflow wanted to be restarted from the start, which resulted in repeated runs and elevated price. All of the coaching and analysis metrics had been inspected manually from Amazon Easy Storage Service (Amazon S3). There was no mechanism to go and retailer the metadata of the a number of experiments executed on the mannequin. Because of the decentralized mannequin monitoring, thorough investigation and cherry-picking one of the best mannequin required hours from the info science staff. Accumulation of all these efforts had resulted in decrease staff productiveness and elevated overhead. Moreover, with a fast-growing staff, it was very difficult to share this information throughout the staff.

As a result of MLOps ideas are very in depth and implementing all of the steps would wish time, we determined that within the first stage we might deal with the next core points:

  • A safe, managed, and templatized setting to retrain our in-house deep studying mannequin utilizing trade greatest practices
  • A parameterized coaching setting to ship a distinct set of parameters for every retraining job and audit the last-runs
  • The flexibility to visually observe coaching metrics and analysis metrics, and have metadata to trace and evaluate experiments
  • The flexibility to scale every step individually and reuse the earlier steps in instances of step failures
  • A single devoted setting to register fashions, retailer options, and invoke inferencing pipelines
  • A contemporary toolset that might reduce compute necessities, drive down prices, and drive sustainable ML improvement and operations by incorporating the flexibleness of utilizing totally different cases for various steps
  • Making a benchmark template of state-of-the-art MLOps pipeline that may very well be used throughout varied information science groups

Games24x7 began evaluating different options, together with Amazon SageMaker Studio Pipelines. The already present resolution by means of Step Capabilities had limitations. Studio pipelines had the flexibleness of including or eradicating a step at any level of time. Additionally, the general structure and their information dependencies between every step might be visualized by means of DAGs. The analysis and fine-tuning of the retraining steps grew to become fairly environment friendly after we adopted totally different Amazon SageMaker functionalities such because the Amazon SageMaker Studio, Pipelines, Processing, Coaching, mannequin registry and experiments and trials. The AWS Resolution Structure staff confirmed nice deep dive and was actually instrumental within the design and implementation of this resolution.

Resolution overview

The next diagram illustrates the answer structure.


The answer makes use of a SageMaker Studio setting to run the retraining experiments. The code to invoke the pipeline script is out there within the Studio notebooks, and we are able to change the hyperparameters and enter/output when invoking the pipeline. That is fairly totally different from our earlier methodology the place we had all of the parameters arduous coded throughout the scripts and all of the processes had been inextricably linked. This required modularization of the monolithic code into totally different steps.

The next diagram illustrates our authentic monolithic course of.



With a view to scale, observe, and run every step individually, the monolithic code wanted to be modularized. Parameters, information, and code dependencies between every step had been eliminated, and shared modules for the shared elements throughout the steps was created. An illustration of the modularization is proven beneath:-


For each single module , testing was executed regionally utilizing SageMaker SDK’s Script mode for coaching, processing and analysis which required minor changes within the code to run with SageMaker. The local mode testing for deep studying scripts might be executed both on SageMaker notebooks if already getting used or through the use of Local Mode using SageMaker Pipelines in case of straight beginning with Pipelines. This helps in validating if our customized scripts will run on SageMaker cases.

Every module was then examined in isolation utilizing SageMaker Coaching/processing SDK’s utilizing Script mode and ran them in a sequence manually utilizing the SageMaker cases for every step like beneath coaching step:

estimator = TensorFlow(
    instance_type="ml.c5.2xlarge",  # Operating on SageMaker ML cases
    position=sagemaker.get_execution_role(),  # Passes to the container the AWS position that you're utilizing on this pocket book

2022-09-28 11:10:34 Beginning - Beginning the coaching job...

Amazon S3 was used to get the supply information to course of after which retailer the intermediate information, information frames, and NumPy outcomes again to Amazon S3 for the following step. After the mixing testing between particular person modules for pre-processing, coaching, analysis was full, the SageMaker Pipeline SDK’s which is built-in with the SageMaker Python SDK’s that we already used within the above steps, allowed us to chain all these modules programmatically by passing the enter parameters, information, metadata and output of every step as an enter to the following steps.

We might re-use the earlier Sagemaker Python SDK code to run the modules individually into Sagemaker Pipeline SDK primarily based runs. The relationships between every steps of the pipeline are decided by the info dependencies between steps.

The ultimate steps of the pipeline are as follows:

  • Information preprocessing
  • Retraining
  • Analysis
  • Mannequin registration


Within the following sections, we focus on every of the steps in additional element when run with the SageMaker Pipeline SDK’s.

Information preprocessing

This step transforms the uncooked enter information and preprocesses and splits into prepare, validation, and check units. For this processing step, we instantiated a SageMaker processing job with TensorFlow Framework Processor, which takes our script, copies the info from Amazon S3, after which pulls a Docker picture supplied and maintained by SageMaker. This Docker container allowed us to go our library dependencies within the necessities.txt file whereas having all of the TensorFlow libraries already included, and go the trail for source_dir for the script. The prepare and validation information goes to the coaching step, and the check information will get forwarded to the analysis step. One of the best a part of utilizing this container was that it allowed us to go quite a lot of inputs and outputs as totally different S3 areas, which might then be handed as a step dependency to the following steps within the SageMaker pipeline.

#Initialize the TensorFlowProcessor
tp = TensorFlowProcessor(

from sagemaker.processing import ProcessingInput, ProcessingOutput
from sagemaker.workflow.steps import ProcessingStep
processor_args =
        ProcessingInput(input_name="data_unlabeled",source=data_unlabeled, destination="/opt/ml/processing/data_unlabeled"),
        ProcessingInput(input_name="data_risky",source=data_risky, destination= "/opt/ml/processing/data_risky"),
        ProcessingInput(input_name="data_dormant",source=data_dormant, destination= "/opt/ml/processing/data_dormant"),
        ProcessingInput(input_name="data_normal",source=data_normal, destination= "/opt/ml/processing/data_normal"),
        ProcessingInput(input_name="data_heavy",source=data_heavy, destination= "/opt/ml/processing/data_heavy")
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="train_output_data", source="/opt/ml/processing/train/data", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_train_path}/data'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="train_output_label", source="/opt/ml/processing/train/label", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_train_path}/label'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="train_kfold_output_data", source="/opt/ml/processing/train/kfold/data", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_train_path}/kfold/data'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="train_kfold_output_label", source="/opt/ml/processing/train/kfold/label", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_train_path}/kfold/label'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="val_output_data", source="/opt/ml/processing/val/data", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_val_path}/data'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="val_output_label", source="/opt/ml/processing/val/label", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_val_path}/label'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="val_output_kfold_data", source="/opt/ml/processing/val/kfold/data", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_val_path}/kfold/data'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="val_output_kfold_label", source="/opt/ml/processing/val/kfold/label", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_val_path}/kfold/label'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="train_unlabeled_kfold_data", source="/opt/ml/processing/train/unlabeled/kfold/", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_train_path}/unlabeled/kfold/'),
        ProcessingOutput(output_name="test_output", source="/opt/ml/processing/test", destination=f's3://{BUCKET}/{op_test_path}')
    arguments=["--scaler_path", op_scaler_path,
              "--bucket", BUCKET],


We wrapped the coaching module by means of the SageMaker Pipelines TrainingStep API and used already out there deep studying container photographs by means of the TensorFlow Framework estimator (also referred to as Script mode) for SageMaker training. Script mode allowed us to have minimal adjustments in our coaching code, and the SageMaker pre-built Docker container handles the Python, Framework variations, and so forth. The ProcessingOutputs from the Data_Preprocessing step had been forwarded because the TrainingInput of this step.

from sagemaker.inputs import TrainingInput

        "train_output_data": TrainingInput(
            content_type="textual content/csv",
        "train_output_label": TrainingInput(
            content_type="textual content/csv",

All of the hyperparameters had been handed by means of the estimator by means of a JSON file. For each epoch in our coaching, we had been already sending our coaching metrics by means of stdOut within the script. As a result of we wished to trace the metrics of an ongoing coaching job and evaluate them with earlier coaching jobs, we simply needed to parse this StdOut by defining the metric definitions by means of regex to fetch the metrics from StdOut for each epoch.

tensorflow_version = "2.11"
training_py_version = "py39"
training_instance_count = 1
training_instance_type = "ml.c5.2xlarge"
tf2_estimator = TensorFlow(
image_uri = "",
metric_definitions=[    {'Name': 'iteration', 'Regex': 'Iteration=(.*?);'},
{'Name': 'Discriminator_Supervised_Loss=", "Regex': 'Discriminator_Supervised_Loss=(.*?);'},
{'Name': 'Discriminator_UnSupervised_Loss', 'Regex': 'Discriminator_UnSupervised_Loss=(.*?);'},
{'Name': 'Generator_Loss', 'Regex': 'Generator_Loss=(.*?);'},
{'Name': 'Accuracy_Supervised', 'Regex': 'Accuracy_Supervised=(.*?);'}                       ]

It was attention-grabbing to grasp that SageMaker Pipelines routinely integrates with SageMaker Experiments API, which by default creates an experiment, trial, and trial part for each run. This permits us to check coaching metrics like accuracy and precision throughout a number of runs as proven beneath.


For every coaching job run, we generate 4 totally different fashions to Amazon S3 primarily based on our customized enterprise definition.


This step masses the educated fashions from Amazon S3 and evaluates on our customized metrics. This ProcessingStep takes the mannequin and the check information as its enter and dumps the stories of the mannequin efficiency on Amazon S3.

We’re utilizing customized metrics, so to be able to register these customized metrics to the mannequin registry, we would have liked to transform the schema of the analysis metrics saved in Amazon S3 as CSV to the SageMaker Model quality JSON output. Then we are able to register the placement of this analysis JSON metrics to the mannequin registry.

The next screenshots present an instance of how we transformed a CSV to Sagemaker Mannequin high quality JSON format.



Mannequin registration

As talked about earlier, we had been creating a number of fashions in a single coaching step, so we had to make use of a SageMaker Pipelines Lambda integration to register all 4 fashions right into a mannequin registry. For a single mannequin registration we are able to use the ModelStep API to create a SageMaker mannequin in registry. For every mannequin, the Lambda perform retrieves the mannequin artifact and analysis metric from Amazon S3 and creates a mannequin package deal to a selected ARN, so that each one 4 fashions might be registered right into a single mannequin registry. The SageMaker Python APIs additionally allowed us to ship customized metadata that we wished to go to pick one of the best fashions. This proved to be a significant milestone for productiveness as a result of all of the fashions can now be in contrast and audited from a single window. We supplied metadata to uniquely distinguish the mannequin from one another. This additionally helped in approving a single mannequin with the assistance of peer-reviews and administration critiques primarily based on mannequin metrics.

def register_model_version(model_url, model_package_group_name, model_metrics_path, key, run_id):
    modelpackage_inference_specification =  {
        "InferenceSpecification": {
          "Containers": [
                "Image": '',
    	         "ModelDataUrl": model_url
          "SupportedContentTypes": [ "text/csv" ],
          "SupportedResponseMIMETypes": [ "text/csv" ],
        'ModelQuality': {
            'Statistics': {
                'ContentType': 'utility/json',
                'S3Uri': model_metrics_path
    create_model_package_input_dict = {
        "ModelPackageGroupName" : model_package_group_name,
        "ModelPackageDescription" : key+" run_id:"+run_id, # extra metadata instance
        "ModelApprovalStatus" : "PendingManualApproval",
        "ModelMetrics" : ModelMetrics
    create_model_package_response = sm_client.create_model_package(**create_model_package_input_dict)
    model_package_arn = create_model_package_response["ModelPackageArn"]
    return model_package_arn

The above code block exhibits an instance of how we added metadata by means of mannequin package deal enter to the mannequin registry together with the mannequin metrics.­­

The screenshot beneath exhibits how simply we are able to evaluate metrics of various mannequin variations as soon as they’re registered.


Pipeline Invocation

The pipeline might be invoked by means of EventBridge , Sagemaker Studio or the SDK itself. The invocation runs the roles primarily based on the info dependencies between steps.

from sagemaker.workflow.pipeline import Pipeline

pipeline = Pipeline(

definition = json.masses(pipeline.definition())
execution = pipeline.begin()


On this put up, we demonstrated how Games24x7 reworked their MLOps belongings by means of SageMaker pipelines. The flexibility to visually observe coaching metrics and analysis metrics, with parameterized setting, scaling the steps individually with the correct processing platform and a central mannequin registry proved to be a significant milestone in standardizing and advancing to an auditable, reusable, environment friendly, and explainable workflow. This undertaking is a blueprint throughout totally different information science groups and has elevated the general productiveness by permitting members to function, handle, and collaborate with greatest practices.

When you have the same use case and need to get began then we might advocate to undergo SageMaker Script mode and the SageMaker end to end examples utilizing Sagemaker Studio. These examples have the technical particulars which has been coated on this weblog.

A contemporary information technique offers you a complete plan to handle, entry, analyze, and act on information. AWS offers probably the most full set of companies for your complete end-to-end information journey for all workloads, all varieties of information and all desired enterprise outcomes. In flip, this makes AWS one of the best place to unlock worth out of your information and switch it into perception.

In regards to the Authors

Hussain Jagirdar is a Senior Scientist – Utilized Analysis at Games24x7. He’s presently concerned in analysis efforts within the space of explainable AI and deep studying. His latest work has concerned deep generative modeling, time-series modeling, and associated subareas of machine studying and AI. He’s additionally keen about MLOps and standardizing initiatives that demand constraints similar to scalability, reliability, and sensitivity.

Sumir Kumar is a Options Architect at AWS and has over 13 years of expertise in expertise trade. At AWS, he works carefully with key AWS clients to design and implement cloud primarily based options that resolve advanced enterprise issues. He’s very keen about information analytics and machine studying and has a confirmed observe document of serving to organizations unlock the complete potential of their information utilizing AWS Cloud.

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