Posit AI Weblog: Discrete Fourier Remodel
Word: This submit is an excerpt from the forthcoming ebook, Deep Studying and Scientific Computing with R torch. The chapter in query is on the Discrete Fourier Remodel (DFT), and is positioned partially three. Half three is devoted to scientific computation past deep studying.
There are two chapters on the Fourier Remodel. The primary strives to, in as “verbal” and lucid a method as was doable to me, solid a lightweight on what’s behind the magic; it additionally reveals how, surprisingly, you’ll be able to code the DFT in merely half a dozen strains. The second focuses on quick implementation (the Quick Fourier Remodel, or FFT), once more with each conceptual/explanatory in addition to sensible, codeityourself elements.
Collectively, these cowl way more materials than might sensibly match right into a weblog submit; due to this fact, please take into account what follows extra as a “teaser” than a completely fledged article.
Within the sciences, the Fourier Remodel is nearly in all places. Acknowledged very usually, it converts information from one illustration to a different, with none lack of info (if carried out accurately, that’s.) In the event you use torch
, it’s only a operate name away: torch_fft_fft()
goes a method, torch_fft_ifft()
the opposite. For the consumer, that’s handy – you “simply” must know the right way to interpret the outcomes. Right here, I wish to assist with that. We begin with an instance operate name, taking part in round with its output, after which, attempt to get a grip on what’s going on behind the scenes.
Understanding the output of torch_fft_fft()
As we care about precise understanding, we begin from the only doable instance sign, a pure cosine that performs one revolution over the entire sampling interval.
Start line: A cosine of frequency 1
The way in which we set issues up, there will likely be sixtyfour samples; the sampling interval thus equals N = 64
. The content material of frequency()
, the beneath helper operate used to assemble the sign, displays how we characterize the cosine. Particularly:
[
f(x) = cos(frac{2 pi}{N} k x)
]
Right here (x) values progress over time (or area), and (okay) is the frequency index. A cosine is periodic with interval (2 pi); so if we would like it to first return to its beginning state after sixtyfour samples, and (x) runs between zero and sixtythree, we’ll need (okay) to be equal to (1). Like that, we’ll attain the preliminary state once more at place (x = frac{2 pi}{64} * 1 * 64).
Let’s shortly affirm this did what it was imagined to:
df < data.frame(x = sample_positions, y = as.numeric(x))
ggplot(df, aes(x = x, y = y)) +
geom_line() +
xlab("time") +
ylab("amplitude") +
theme_minimal()
Now that we’ve got the enter sign, torch_fft_fft()
computes for us the Fourier coefficients, that’s, the significance of the assorted frequencies current within the sign. The variety of frequencies thought of will equal the variety of sampling factors: So (X) will likely be of size sixtyfour as nicely.
(In our instance, you’ll discover that the second half of coefficients will equal the primary in magnitude. That is the case for each realvalued sign. In such instances, you might name torch_fft_rfft()
as an alternative, which yields “nicer” (within the sense of shorter) vectors to work with. Right here although, I wish to clarify the overall case, since that’s what you’ll discover carried out in most expositions on the subject.)
Even with the sign being actual, the Fourier coefficients are advanced numbers. There are 4 methods to examine them. The primary is to extract the actual half:
[1] 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[29] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[57] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
Solely a single coefficient is nonzero, the one at place 1. (We begin counting from zero, and should discard the second half, as defined above.)
Now trying on the imaginary half, we discover it’s zero all through:
[1] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[29] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[57] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
At this level we all know that there’s only a single frequency current within the sign, specifically, that at (okay = 1). This matches (and it higher needed to) the best way we constructed the sign: specifically, as carrying out a single revolution over the entire sampling interval.
Since, in concept, each coefficient might have nonzero actual and imaginary elements, usually what you’d report is the magnitude (the sq. root of the sum of squared actual and imaginary elements):
[1] 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[29] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[57] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
Unsurprisingly, these values precisely replicate the respective actual elements.
Lastly, there’s the section, indicating a doable shift of the sign (a pure cosine is unshifted). In torch
, we’ve got torch_angle()
complementing torch_abs()
, however we have to consider roundoff error right here. We all know that in every however a single case, the actual and imaginary elements are each precisely zero; however on account of finite precision in how numbers are offered in a pc, the precise values will usually not be zero. As an alternative, they’ll be very small. If we take one in every of these “pretend nonzeroes” and divide it by one other, as occurs within the angle calculation, large values may end up. To stop this from taking place, our customized implementation rounds each inputs earlier than triggering the division.
section < operate(Ft, threshold = 1e5) {
torch_atan2(
torch_abs(torch_round(Ft$imag * threshold)),
torch_abs(torch_round(Ft$actual * threshold))
)
}
as.numeric(section(Ft)) %>% round(5)
[1] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[29] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[57] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
As anticipated, there isn’t a section shift within the sign.
Let’s visualize what we discovered.
create_plot < operate(x, y, amount) {
df < data.frame(
x_ = x,
y_ = as.numeric(y) %>% round(5)
)
ggplot(df, aes(x = x_, y = y_)) +
geom_col() +
xlab("frequency") +
ylab(amount) +
theme_minimal()
}
p_real < create_plot(
sample_positions,
real_part,
"actual half"
)
p_imag < create_plot(
sample_positions,
imag_part,
"imaginary half"
)
p_magnitude < create_plot(
sample_positions,
magnitude,
"magnitude"
)
p_phase < create_plot(
sample_positions,
section(Ft),
"section"
)
p_real + p_imag + p_magnitude + p_phase
It’s truthful to say that we’ve got no cause to doubt what torch_fft_fft()
has carried out. However with a pure sinusoid like this, we will perceive precisely what’s occurring by computing the DFT ourselves, by hand. Doing this now will considerably assist us later, after we’re writing the code.
Reconstructing the magic
One caveat about this part. With a subject as wealthy because the Fourier Remodel, and an viewers who I think about to range broadly on a dimension of math and sciences training, my probabilities to fulfill your expectations, pricey reader, should be very near zero. Nonetheless, I wish to take the danger. In the event you’re an knowledgeable on these items, you’ll anyway be simply scanning the textual content, searching for items of torch
code. In the event you’re reasonably acquainted with the DFT, you should still like being reminded of its internal workings. And – most significantly – in case you’re moderately new, and even utterly new, to this matter, you’ll hopefully take away (at the very least) one factor: that what looks as if one of many best wonders of the universe (assuming there’s a actuality someway similar to what goes on in our minds) could be a surprise, however neither “magic” nor a factor reserved to the initiated.
In a nutshell, the Fourier Remodel is a foundation transformation. Within the case of the DFT – the Discrete Fourier Remodel, the place time and frequency representations each are finite vectors, not features – the brand new foundation seems to be like this:
[
begin{aligned}
&mathbf{w}^{0n}_N = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}* 0 * n} = 1
&mathbf{w}^{1n}_N = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}* 1 * n} = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N} n}
&mathbf{w}^{2n}_N = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}* 2 * n} = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}2n}& …
&mathbf{w}^{(N1)n}_N = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}* (N1) * n} = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}(N1)n}
end{aligned}
]
Right here (N), as earlier than, is the variety of samples (64, in our case); thus, there are (N) foundation vectors. With (okay) working by means of the premise vectors, they are often written:
[
mathbf{w}^{kn}_N = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}k n}
] {#eqdft1}
Like (okay), (n) runs from (0) to (N1). To know what these foundation vectors are doing, it’s useful to briefly swap to a shorter sampling interval, (N = 4), say. If we achieve this, we’ve got 4 foundation vectors: (mathbf{w}^{0n}_N), (mathbf{w}^{1n}_N), (mathbf{w}^{2n}_N), and (mathbf{w}^{3n}_N). The primary one seems to be like this:
[
mathbf{w}^{0n}_N
=
begin{bmatrix}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 0}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 1}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 2}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 3}
end{bmatrix}
=
begin{bmatrix}
1
1
1
1
end{bmatrix}
]
The second, like so:
[
mathbf{w}^{1n}_N
=
begin{bmatrix}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 0}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 1}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 2}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 3}
end{bmatrix}
=
begin{bmatrix}
1
e^{ifrac{pi}{2}}
e^{i pi}
e^{ifrac{3 pi}{4}}
end{bmatrix}
=
begin{bmatrix}
1
i
1
i
end{bmatrix}
]
That is the third:
[
mathbf{w}^{2n}_N
=
begin{bmatrix}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 0}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 1}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 2}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 3}
end{bmatrix}
=
begin{bmatrix}
1
e^{ipi}
e^{i 2 pi}
e^{ifrac{3 pi}{2}}
end{bmatrix}
=
begin{bmatrix}
1
1
1
1
end{bmatrix}
]
And eventually, the fourth:
[
mathbf{w}^{3n}_N
=
begin{bmatrix}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 0}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 1}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 2}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 3}
end{bmatrix}
=
begin{bmatrix}
1
e^{ifrac{3 pi}{2}}
e^{i 3 pi}
e^{ifrac{9 pi}{2}}
end{bmatrix}
=
begin{bmatrix}
1
i
1
i
end{bmatrix}
]
We will characterize these 4 foundation vectors when it comes to their “velocity”: how briskly they transfer across the unit circle. To do that, we merely take a look at the rightmost column vectors, the place the ultimate calculation outcomes seem. The values in that column correspond to positions pointed to by the revolving foundation vector at completely different closing dates. Which means a single “replace of place”, we will see how briskly the vector is shifting in a single time step.
Trying first at (mathbf{w}^{0n}_N), we see that it doesn’t transfer in any respect. (mathbf{w}^{1n}_N) goes from (1) to (i) to (1) to (i); yet another step, and it will be again the place it began. That’s one revolution in 4 steps, or a step dimension of (frac{pi}{2}). Then (mathbf{w}^{2n}_N) goes at double that tempo, shifting a distance of (pi) alongside the circle. That method, it finally ends up finishing two revolutions total. Lastly, (mathbf{w}^{3n}_N) achieves three full loops, for a step dimension of (frac{3 pi}{2}).
The factor that makes these foundation vectors so helpful is that they’re mutually orthogonal. That’s, their dot product is zero:
[
langle mathbf{w}^{kn}_N, mathbf{w}^{ln}_N rangle = sum_{n=0}^{N1} ({e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}k n}})^* e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}l n} = sum_{n=0}^{N1} ({e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}k n}})e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}l n} = 0
] {#eqdft2}
Let’s take, for instance, (mathbf{w}^{2n}_N) and (mathbf{w}^{3n}_N). Certainly, their dot product evaluates to zero.
[
begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & 1 & 1
end{bmatrix}
begin{bmatrix}
1
i
1
i
end{bmatrix}
=
1 + i + (1) + (i) = 0
]
Now, we’re about to see how the orthogonality of the Fourier foundation considerably simplifies the calculation of the DFT. Did you discover the similarity between these foundation vectors and the best way we wrote the instance sign? Right here it’s once more:
[
f(x) = cos(frac{2 pi}{N} k x)
]
If we handle to characterize this operate when it comes to the premise vectors (mathbf{w}^{kn}_N = e^{ifrac{2 pi}{N}okay n}), the internal product between the operate and every foundation vector will likely be both zero (the “default”) or a a number of of 1 (in case the operate has a element matching the premise vector in query). Fortunately, sines and cosines can simply be transformed into advanced exponentials. In our instance, that is how that goes:
[
begin{aligned}
mathbf{x}_n &= cos(frac{2 pi}{64} n)
&= frac{1}{2} (e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} n} + e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} n})
&= frac{1}{2} (e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} n} + e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} 63n})
&= frac{1}{2} (mathbf{w}^{1n}_N + mathbf{w}^{63n}_N)
end{aligned}
]
Right here step one straight outcomes from Euler’s system, and the second displays the truth that the Fourier coefficients are periodic, with frequency 1 being the identical as 63, 2 equaling 62, and so forth.
Now, the (okay)th Fourier coefficient is obtained by projecting the sign onto foundation vector (okay).
Because of the orthogonality of the premise vectors, solely two coefficients is not going to be zero: these for (mathbf{w}^{1n}_N) and (mathbf{w}^{63n}_N). They’re obtained by computing the internal product between the operate and the premise vector in query, that’s, by summing over (n). For every (n) ranging between (0) and (N1), we’ve got a contribution of (frac{1}{2}), leaving us with a closing sum of (32) for each coefficients. For instance, for (mathbf{w}^{1n}_N):
[
begin{aligned}
X_1 &= langle mathbf{w}^{1n}_N, mathbf{x}_n rangle
&= langle mathbf{w}^{1n}_N, frac{1}{2} (mathbf{w}^{1n}_N + mathbf{w}^{63n}_N) rangle
&= frac{1}{2} * 64
&= 32
end{aligned}
]
And analogously for (X_{63}).
Now, trying again at what torch_fft_fft()
gave us, we see we have been in a position to arrive on the similar consequence. And we’ve discovered one thing alongside the best way.
So long as we stick with alerts composed of a number of foundation vectors, we will compute the DFT on this method. On the finish of the chapter, we’ll develop code that can work for all alerts, however first, let’s see if we will dive even deeper into the workings of the DFT. Three issues we’ll wish to discover:

What would occur if frequencies modified – say, a melody have been sung at the next pitch?

What about amplitude modifications – say, the music have been performed twice as loud?

What about section – e.g., there have been an offset earlier than the piece began?
In all instances, we’ll name torch_fft_fft()
solely as soon as we’ve decided the consequence ourselves.
And eventually, we’ll see how advanced sinusoids, made up of various parts, can nonetheless be analyzed on this method, offered they are often expressed when it comes to the frequencies that make up the premise.
Various frequency
Assume we quadrupled the frequency, giving us a sign that regarded like this:
[
mathbf{x}_n = cos(frac{2 pi}{N}*4*n)
]
Following the identical logic as above, we will specific it like so:
[
mathbf{x}_n = frac{1}{2} (mathbf{w}^{4n}_N + mathbf{w}^{60n}_N)
]
We already see that nonzero coefficients will likely be obtained just for frequency indices (4) and (60). Selecting the previous, we acquire
[
begin{aligned}
X_4 &= langle mathbf{w}^{4n}_N, mathbf{x}_n rangle
&= langle mathbf{w}^{4n}_N, frac{1}{2} (mathbf{w}^{4n}_N + mathbf{w}^{60n}_N) rangle
&= 32
end{aligned}
]
For the latter, we’d arrive on the similar consequence.
Now, let’s be certain our evaluation is right. The next code snippet incorporates nothing new; it generates the sign, calculates the DFT, and plots them each.
x < torch_cos(frequency(4, N) * sample_positions)
plot_ft < operate(x) plot_spacer()) /
(p_real
plot_ft(x)
This does certainly affirm our calculations.
A particular case arises when sign frequency rises to the best one “allowed”, within the sense of being detectable with out aliasing. That would be the case at one half of the variety of sampling factors. Then, the sign will appear like so:
[
mathbf{x}_n = frac{1}{2} (mathbf{w}^{32n}_N + mathbf{w}^{32n}_N)
]
Consequently, we find yourself with a single coefficient, similar to a frequency of 32 revolutions per pattern interval, of double the magnitude (64, thus). Listed here are the sign and its DFT:
x < torch_cos(frequency(32, N) * sample_positions)
plot_ft(x)
Various amplitude
Now, let’s take into consideration what occurs after we range amplitude. For instance, say the sign will get twice as loud. Now, there will likely be a multiplier of two that may be taken exterior the internal product. In consequence, the one factor that modifications is the magnitude of the coefficients.
Let’s confirm this. The modification relies on the instance we had earlier than the final one, with 4 revolutions over the sampling interval:
x < 2 * torch_cos(frequency(4, N) * sample_positions)
plot_ft(x)
Thus far, we’ve got not as soon as seen a coefficient with nonzero imaginary half. To vary this, we add in section.
Including section
Altering the section of a sign means shifting it in time. Our instance sign is a cosine, a operate whose worth is 1 at (t=0). (That additionally was the – arbitrarily chosen – place to begin of the sign.)
Now assume we shift the sign ahead by (frac{pi}{2}). Then the height we have been seeing at zero strikes over to (frac{pi}{2}); and if we nonetheless begin “recording” at zero, we should discover a worth of zero there. An equation describing that is the next. For comfort, we assume a sampling interval of (2 pi) and (okay=1), in order that the instance is an easy cosine:
[
f(x) = cos(x – phi)
]
The minus signal could look unintuitive at first. However it does make sense: We now wish to acquire a price of 1 at (x=frac{pi}{2}), so (x – phi) ought to consider to zero. (Or to any a number of of (pi).) Summing up, a delay in time will seem as a unfavorable section shift.
Now, we’re going to calculate the DFT for a shifted model of our instance sign. However in case you like, take a peek on the phaseshifted model of the timedomain image now already. You’ll see {that a} cosine, delayed by (frac{pi}{2}), is nothing else than a sine beginning at 0.
To compute the DFT, we comply with our familiarbynow technique. The sign now seems to be like this:
[
mathbf{x}_n = cos(frac{2 pi}{N}*4*x – frac{pi}{2})
]
First, we specific it when it comes to foundation vectors:
[
begin{aligned}
mathbf{x}_n &= cos(frac{2 pi}{64} 4 n – frac{pi}{2})
&= frac{1}{2} (e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} 4n – frac{pi}{2}} + e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} 60n – frac{pi}{2}})
&= frac{1}{2} (e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} 4n} e^{i frac{pi}{2}} + e^{ifrac{2 pi}{64} 60n} e^{ifrac{pi}{2}})
&= frac{1}{2} (e^{i frac{pi}{2}} mathbf{w}^{4n}_N + e^{i frac{pi}{2}} mathbf{w}^{60n}_N)
end{aligned}
]
Once more, we’ve got nonzero coefficients just for frequencies (4) and (60). However they’re advanced now, and each coefficients are not equivalent. As an alternative, one is the advanced conjugate of the opposite. First, (X_4):
[
begin{aligned}
X_4 &= langle mathbf{w}^{4n}_N, mathbf{x}_n rangle
&=langle mathbf{w}^{4n}_N, frac{1}{2} (e^{i frac{pi}{2}} mathbf{w}^{4n}_N + e^{i frac{pi}{2}} mathbf{w}^{60n}_N) rangle
&= 32 *e^{i frac{pi}{2}}
&= 32i
end{aligned}
]
And right here, (X_{60}):
[
begin{aligned}
X_{60} &= langle mathbf{w}^{60n}_N, mathbf{x}_N rangle
&= 32 *e^{i frac{pi}{2}}
&= 32i
end{aligned}
]
As standard, we test our calculation utilizing torch_fft_fft()
.
x < torch_cos(frequency(4, N) * sample_positions  pi / 2)
plot_ft(x)
For a pure sine wave, the nonzero Fourier coefficients are imaginary. The section shift within the coefficients, reported as (frac{pi}{2}), displays the time delay we utilized to the sign.
Lastly – earlier than we write some code – let’s put all of it collectively, and take a look at a wave that has greater than a single sinusoidal element.
Superposition of sinusoids
The sign we assemble should still be expressed when it comes to the premise vectors, however it’s not a pure sinusoid. As an alternative, it’s a linear mixture of such:
[
begin{aligned}
mathbf{x}_n &= 3 sin(frac{2 pi}{64} 4n) + 6 cos(frac{2 pi}{64} 2n) +2cos(frac{2 pi}{64} 8n)
end{aligned}
]
I received’t undergo the calculation intimately, however it’s no completely different from the earlier ones. You compute the DFT for every of the three parts, and assemble the outcomes. With none calculation, nonetheless, there’s fairly just a few issues we will say:
 Because the sign consists of two pure cosines and one pure sine, there will likely be 4 coefficients with nonzero actual elements, and two with nonzero imaginary elements. The latter will likely be advanced conjugates of one another.
 From the best way the sign is written, it’s simple to find the respective frequencies, as nicely: The allreal coefficients will correspond to frequency indices 2, 8, 56, and 62; the allimaginary ones to indices 4 and 60.
 Lastly, amplitudes will consequence from multiplying with (frac{64}{2}) the scaling components obtained for the person sinusoids.
Let’s test:
Now, how can we calculate the DFT for much less handy alerts?
Coding the DFT
Luckily, we already know what must be carried out. We wish to venture the sign onto every of the premise vectors. In different phrases, we’ll be computing a bunch of internal merchandise. Logicwise, nothing modifications: The one distinction is that typically, it is not going to be doable to characterize the sign when it comes to just some foundation vectors, like we did earlier than. Thus, all projections will truly must be calculated. However isn’t automation of tedious duties one factor we’ve got computer systems for?
Let’s begin by stating enter, output, and central logic of the algorithm to be applied. As all through this chapter, we keep in a single dimension. The enter, thus, is a onedimensional tensor, encoding a sign. The output is a onedimensional vector of Fourier coefficients, of the identical size because the enter, every holding details about a frequency. The central thought is: To acquire a coefficient, venture the sign onto the corresponding foundation vector.
To implement that concept, we have to create the premise vectors, and for every one, compute its internal product with the sign. This may be carried out in a loop. Surprisingly little code is required to perform the purpose:
dft < operate(x) {
n_samples < length(x)
n < torch_arange(0, n_samples  1)$unsqueeze(1)
Ft < torch_complex(
torch_zeros(n_samples), torch_zeros(n_samples)
)
for (okay in 0:(n_samples  1)) {
w_k < torch_exp(1i * 2 * pi / n_samples * okay * n)
dot < torch_matmul(w_k, x$to(dtype = torch_cfloat()))
Ft[k + 1] < dot
}
Ft
}
To check the implementation, we will take the final sign we analysed, and evaluate with the output of torch_fft_fft()
.
[1] 0 0 192 0 0 0 0 0 64 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[29] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[57] 64 0 0 0 0 0 192 0
[1] 0 0 0 0 96 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[29] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[57] 0 0 0 0 96 0 0 0
Reassuringly – in case you look again – the outcomes are the identical.
Above, did I say “little code”? In truth, a loop is just not even wanted. As an alternative of working with the premise vectors onebyone, we will stack them in a matrix. Then every row will maintain the conjugate of a foundation vector, and there will likely be (N) of them. The columns correspond to positions (0) to (N1); there will likely be (N) of them as nicely. For instance, that is how the matrix would search for (N=4):
[
mathbf{W}_4
=
begin{bmatrix}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 0} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 1} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 2} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 0 * 3}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 0} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 1} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 2} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 1 * 3}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 0} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 1} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 2} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 2 * 3}
e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 0} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 1} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 2} & e^{ifrac{2 pi}{4}* 3 * 3}
end{bmatrix}
] {#eqdft3}
Or, evaluating the expressions:
[
mathbf{W}_4
=
begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & 1 & 1
1 & i & 1 & i
1 & 1 & 1 & 1
1 & i & 1 & i
end{bmatrix}
]
With that modification, the code seems to be much more elegant:
dft_vec < operate(x) {
n_samples < length(x)
n < torch_arange(0, n_samples  1)$unsqueeze(1)
okay < torch_arange(0, n_samples  1)$unsqueeze(2)
mat_k_m < torch_exp(1i * 2 * pi / n_samples * okay * n)
torch_matmul(mat_k_m, x$to(dtype = torch_cfloat()))
}
As you’ll be able to simply confirm, the consequence is identical.
Thanks for studying!
Picture by Trac Vu on Unsplash