# Deep Dive into Self-Consideration by Hand✍︎ | by Srijanie Dey, PhD | Apr, 2024

So, with out additional delay, allow us to dive into the main points behind the self-attention mechanism and unravel the workings behind it. The **Question-Key module **and the **SoftMax** operate play a vital function on this approach.

This dialogue is predicated on Prof. Tom Yeh’s fantastic AI by Hand Sequence on Self-Attention. (All the photographs beneath, except in any other case famous, are by Prof. Tom Yeh from the above-mentioned LinkedIn put up, which I’ve edited together with his permission.)

So right here we go:

To construct some context right here, here’s a pointer to how we course of the** ‘Consideration-Weighting’ **within the transformer** **outer shell.

**Consideration weight matrix (A)**

The eye weight matrix **A **is obtained by feeding the enter options into the Question-Key (QK) module. This matrix tries to search out essentially the most related elements within the enter sequence. Self-Consideration comes into play whereas creating the Consideration weight matrix **A** utilizing the QK-module.

**How does the QK-module work?**

Allow us to take a look at The totally different parts of Self-Consideration: **Question (Q), Key (Okay) **and **Worth (V)**.

I like utilizing the highlight analogy right here because it helps me visualize the mannequin throwing mild on every component of the sequence and looking for essentially the most related elements. Taking this analogy a bit additional, allow us to use it to know the totally different parts of Self-Consideration.

Think about a giant stage preparing for the world’s largest Macbeth manufacturing. The viewers outdoors is teeming with pleasure.

*The lead actor walks onto the stage, the highlight shines on him and he asks in his booming voice “Ought to I seize the crown?”. The viewers whispers in hushed tones and wonders which path this query will result in. Thus, Macbeth himself represents the function of**Question (Q)**as he asks pivotal questions and drives the story ahead.**Primarily based on Macbeth’s question, the highlight shifts to different essential characters that maintain info to the reply. The affect of different essential characters within the story, like Woman Macbeth, triggers Macbeth’s personal ambitions and actions. These different characters may be seen because the**Key (Okay)**as they unravel totally different aspects of the story based mostly on the actual they know.**Lastly, these characters present sufficient motivation and data to Macbeth by their actions and views. These may be seen as**Worth (V).**The**Worth (V)**pushes Macbeth in the direction of his selections and shapes the destiny of the story.*

And with that’s created one of many world’s best performances, that continues to be etched within the minds of the awestruck viewers for the years to come back.

Now that we’ve got witnessed the function of **Q**, **Okay**, **V** within the fantastical world of performing arts, let’s return to planet matrices and be taught the mathematical nitty-gritty behind the **QK-module**. That is the roadmap that we’ll comply with:

And so the method begins.

**We’re given:**

A set of 4-feature vectors (Dimension 6)

**Our aim :**

Remodel the given options into **Consideration Weighted Options**.

[1] **Create Question, Key, Worth Matrices**

To take action, we multiply the options with linear transformation matrices W_Q, W_K, and W_V, to acquire question vectors (q1,q2,q3,this autumn), key vectors (k1,k2,k3,k4), and worth vectors (v1,v2,v3,v4) respectively as proven beneath:

To get **Q**, multiply W_Q with X:

To get **Okay**, multiply W_K with X:

Equally, to get **V**, multiply W_V with X.

**To be famous:**

- As may be seen from the calculation above, we use the identical set of options for each queries and keys. And that’s how the concept of
**“self”**comes into play right here, i.e. the mannequin makes use of the identical set of options to create its question vector in addition to the important thing vector. - The
**question vector**represents the present phrase (or token) for which we need to compute consideration scores relative to different phrases within the sequence. - The
**key vector**represents the opposite phrases (or tokens) within the enter sequence and we compute the eye rating for every of them with respect to the present phrase.

[2] **Matrix Multiplication**

The subsequent step is to multiply the transpose of **Okay** with **Q** i.e. **Okay**^T . **Q**.

The thought right here is to calculate the dot product between each pair of question and key vectors. Calculating the dot product offers us an estimate of the matching rating between each “key-query” pair, through the use of the concept of **Cosine Similarity **between the 2 vectors. That is the ** ‘dot-product’ **a part of the scaled dot-product consideration.

Cosine-SimilarityCosine similarity is the cosine of the angle between the vectors; that’s, it’s the dot product of the vectors divided by the product of their lengths. It roughly measures if two vectors are pointing in the identical course thus implying the 2 vectors are related.

Keep in mind cos(0°) = 1, cos(90°) = 0 , cos(180°) =-1– If the dot product between the 2 vectors is roughly 1, it implies we’re taking a look at an nearly zero angle between the 2 vectors that means they’re very shut to one another.

– If the dot product between the 2 vectors is roughly 0, it implies we’re taking a look at vectors which can be orthogonal to one another and never very related.

– If the dot product between the 2 vectors is roughly -1, it implies we’re taking a look at an nearly an 180° angle between the 2 vectors that means they’re opposites.

[3]** Scale**

The subsequent step is to scale/normalize every component by the sq. root of the dimension ‘*d_k*’. In our case the quantity is 3. Cutting down helps to maintain the influence of the dimension on the matching rating in examine.

How does it achieve this? As per the unique Transformer paper and going again to Chance 101, if two impartial and identically distributed (i.i.d) variables *q* and *ok* with imply 0 and variance 1 with dimension d are multiplied, the result’s a brand new random variable with imply remaining 0 however variance altering to *d_k*.

Now think about how the matching rating would look if our dimension is elevated to 32, 64, 128 and even 4960 for that matter. The bigger dimension would make the variance greater and push the values into areas ‘unknown’.

To maintain the calculation easy right here, since *sqrt *[3] is roughly 1.73205, we exchange it with [ *floor*(□/2) ].

Flooring OperateThe ground operate takes an actual quantity as an argument and returns the most important integer lower than or equal to that actual quantity.

Eg : flooring(1.5) = 1, flooring(2.9) = 2, flooring (2.01) = 2, flooring(0.5) = 0.

The alternative of the ground operate is the ceiling operate.

This the ‘scaled’ a part of the scaled dot-product consideration.

[4] **Softmax**

There are three elements to this step:

- Elevate e to the ability of the quantity in every cell (To make issues straightforward, we use 3 to the ability of the quantity in every cell.)
- Sum these new values throughout every column.
- For every column, divide every component by its respective sum (Normalize). The aim of normalizing every column is to have numbers sum as much as 1. In different phrases, every column then turns into a
**chance distribution**of consideration, which supplies us our**Consideration Weight Matrix (A).**

**This Consideration Weight Matrix is what we had obtained after passing our characteristic matrix by way of the QK-module in Step 2 within the Transformers part.**

The Softmax step is necessary because it assigns chances to the rating obtained within the earlier steps and thus helps the mannequin determine how a lot significance (greater/decrease consideration weights) must be given to every phrase given the present question. As is to be anticipated, greater consideration weights signify higher relevance permitting the mannequin to seize dependencies extra precisely.

As soon as once more, the scaling within the earlier step turns into necessary right here. With out the scaling, the values of the resultant matrix will get pushed out into areas that aren’t processed effectively by the Softmax operate and should lead to vanishing gradients.

[5]** Matrix Multiplication**

Lastly we multiply the worth vectors (**V**s) with the Consideration Weight Matrix (**A**). These worth vectors are necessary as they comprise the data related to every phrase within the sequence.

And the results of the ultimate multiplication on this step are the **consideration weighted options Z**s that are the final word resolution of the self-attention mechanism. These attention-weighted options primarily comprise a **weighted illustration** **of the options** assigning greater weights for options with greater relevance as per the context.

Now with this info obtainable, we proceed to the subsequent step within the transformer structure the place the feed-forward layer processes this info additional.

And this brings us to the tip of the sensible self-attention approach!

Reviewing all the important thing factors based mostly on the concepts we talked about above:

- Consideration mechanism was the results of an effort to higher the efficiency of RNNs,
**addressing the difficulty of fixed-length vector representations**within the encoder-decoder structure. The pliability of soft-length vectors with a give attention to the related elements of a sequence was the core power behind consideration. - Self-attention was launched as a strategy to inculcate the concept of context into the mannequin. The self-attention mechanism
**evaluates the identical enter sequence that it processes**, therefore using the phrase ‘self’. - There are various variants to the
**self-attention mechanism**and efforts are ongoing to make it extra environment friendly. Nevertheless, scaled dot-product consideration is likely one of the hottest ones and a vital purpose why the transformer structure was deemed to be so highly effective. - Scaled dot-product self-attention mechanism contains the
**Question-Key module (QK-module)**together with the**Softmax operate**. The QK module is liable for extracting the relevance of every component of the enter sequence by calculating the eye scores and the Softmax operate enhances it by assigning chance to the eye scores. - As soon as the attention-scores are calculated,
**they’re multiplied with the worth vector to acquire the attention-weighted options**that are then handed on to the feed-forward layer.

## Multi-Head Consideration

To cater to a diversified and general illustration of the sequence, a number of copies of the **self-attention mechanism are carried out in parallel** that are then concatenated to provide the ultimate attention-weighted values. That is referred to as the Multi-Head Consideration.

## Transformer in a Nutshell

That is how the inner-shell of the transformer structure works. And bringing it along with the outer shell, here’s a abstract of the Transformer mechanism:

- The 2 large concepts within the Transformer structure listed here are
**attention-weighting and the feed-forward layer (FFN)**. Each of them mixed collectively enable the Transformer to investigate the enter sequence from two instructions.**Consideration**appears on the sequence based mostly on**positions**and the**FFN**does it based mostly on the**dimensions**of the characteristic matrix. - The half that powers the eye mechanism is the
**scaled dot-product Consideration**which consists of the**QK-module**and outputs the eye weighted options.

**‘Consideration Is basically All You Want’**

Transformers have been right here for just a few years and the sector of AI has already seen great progress based mostly on it. And the hassle continues to be ongoing. When the authors of the paper used that title for his or her paper, they weren’t kidding.

It’s attention-grabbing to see as soon as once more how a basic concept — the ‘dot product’ coupled with sure elaborations can become so highly effective!

P.S. If you need to work by way of this train by yourself, listed here are the clean templates so that you can use.

Blank Template for hand-exercise

Now go have some enjoyable with the train whereas being attentive to your **Robtimus Prime**!